Problem: Write a c program to add two matrices using linked list.

Each node of the linked list represent a matrix element, where:

  • row  –  Stores the row value of the element.
  • col    –  Stores the column value of the element.
  • data  – Store the value of the element.
  • *next -Store the address of next element (node).

The following code add two matrices in C using the concept of linked list..

#include <stdio.h>
#include <stdlib.h>
 
typedef struct element
{
    int row;
    int col;
    int data;
    struct element *next;
}element;
 
typedef struct matrix
{
    element *head;
    int rows;
    int columns;
    element *tail;
    int nodecount;
}matrix;
 
// prototype definition
 
void init(matrix *,int,int);
void creatematrice(matrix *,int,int,int);
int searchdata(matrix *,int,int);
matrix* addmatrix(matrix *, matrix *);
void display(matrix *);
 
matrix finalmatrix;
 
void init(matrix *m,int r,int c)
{
    m->head=NULL;
    m->tail=NULL;
    m->columns=c;
    m->rows=r;
    m->nodecount=r*c;
}
 
void creatematrice(matrix *m,int d,int r,int c)
{
    element *current=(element *)malloc(sizeof(element));
    current->row=r;
    current->col=c;
    current->data=d;
    current->next=m->head;
    m->head=current;
 
}
matrix* addmatrix(matrix *m1,matrix *m2)
{
    if(m1->head == NULL || m2->head == NULL)
    {
        printf("addition not possible as matrix is empty");
        return NULL;
    }
    init(&finalmatrix,m1->rows,m1->columns);
    int i,j;
    for(i=1;i<=m1->rows;i++)
    {
        for(j=1;j<=m2->columns;j++)
        {
            creatematrice(&finalmatrix,(searchdata(m1,i,j)+searchdata(m2,i,j)),i,j);
        }
 
    }
    return (&finalmatrix);
}
 
int searchdata(matrix *m,int r,int c)
{
    element *current=m->head;
    while(current!=NULL)
    {
 
        if(current->col==c && current->row==r)
            return current->data;
        current=current->next;
    }
}
 
void display(matrix *m)
{
    if(m->head == NULL){
        printf("Matrix is empty \n");
        return;
    }
    int i,j;
    for(i=1;i<=m->rows;i++)
    {
        for(j=1;j<=m->columns;j++)
        {
            printf("%d ",searchdata(m,i,j));
        }
        printf("\n");
    }
}
 
int main()
{
    int ch,r1,r2,c1,c2,ch2,p,s,data,i,j;
    matrix m1,m2;
    while(1)
    {
        outer:
        printf("1.To enter values in first matrix \n");
        printf("2.To enter values in second matrix\n");
        printf("3.To add two matrix\n");
        printf("4.To display a matrix\n");
        printf("5.To exit \n");
        printf("Enter choice\n");
        scanf("%d",&ch);
        switch(ch)
        {
            case 1:
                printf("Enter number of rows\n");
                scanf("%d",&r1);
                printf("Enter number of columns\n");
                scanf("%d",&c1);
                init(&m1,r1,c1);
                p=r1;
                s=c1;
                for(i=1;i<=p;i++)
                {
                    for(j=1;j<=s;j++)
                    {
                        printf("Enter data in %d row %d column  ",i,j);
                        scanf("%d",&data);
                        creatematrice(&m1,data,i,j);
 
                    }
                }
                printf("First matrix is full\n");
                break;
            case 2:
                printf("Enter number of rows\n");
                scanf("%d",&r2);
                printf("Enter number of columns\n");
                scanf("%d",&c2);
                init(&m2,r2,c2);
                p=r2;
                s=c2;
                for(i=1;i<=p;i++)
                {
                    for(j=1;j<=s;j++)
                    {
                        printf("Enter data in %d row %d column  ",i,j);
                        scanf("%d",&data);
                        creatematrice(&m2,data,i,j);
                    }
                }
                printf("Second matrix is full\n");
                break;
            case 3:
                if(r1!=0 && r2!=0 && c1!=0 && c2!=0 && r1==r2 && c1==c2)
                {
                    matrix *resultmatrix=addmatrix(&m1,&m2);
                    display(resultmatrix);
                }
                else
                    printf("Operation could not be implemented now, may be because of unmatching order\n");
                break;
            case 4:
                while(1)
                {
                    printf("1. To display first matrix\n");
                    printf("2. To display second matrix\n");
                    printf("3. To main menu\n");
                    printf("Enter choice\n");
                    scanf("%d",&ch2);
                    switch(ch2)
                    {
                    case 1:
                        display(&m1);
                        break;
                    case 2:
                        display(&m2);
                        break;
                    case 3:
                        goto outer;
                    default:
                        printf("Wrong choice\n");
 
                    }
                }
                break;
            case 5:
                exit(0);
                break;
            default:
                printf("Wrong choice\n");
        }
    }
}

Output

Case 1: When the order of the two matrix are the same.

matrix addition in x using linked list

Case 2: When the order of the two matrices is not the same.

matrix addition in c

Case 3: When one of the matrices is empty.

matrix addition code

In this program, we are using two matrices. Each matrix has:

  • rows        – Stores the count of the total number of rows in the matrix.
  • columns – Stores the count of the total number of columns in the matrix.
  • *head      – Sores the head element.
  • *tail         – Stores the tail element.

The program displays the menu in the loop which can handle multiple operations like

  • Displaying matrix.
  • Inputting elements into the matrix.
  • Adding two matrix.
  • Exit & more.

I recommend you to run the code with different inputs to understand the code at best.

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